The Kremlin and Red Square have both witnessed dramatic historical and political events in Russia. The Kremlin's is actually like a self contained city, with a multitude of palaces, armories, and churches. The Kremlin's history can be traced back to the times when it was a hunting lodge of a ruling prince. The Kremlin rises above the Moscow River in the center of the city. Its first white-stone walls and towers went up in 1367-68. However, it was rebuilt more than a century later, with an army of the most skilled architects, artisans, and workers from all over Europe.
In the early part of the soviet era, the Kremlin became an exclusive enclave where the state's governing elite lived and worked. It remains the official residence of the president of the worked. It remains the official residence of the president of Russian federation. It contains within its walls a unique series of masterpieces of architecture such as the church of the Annunciation, Cathedral of the Dormition, and the Bell Tower of Ivan Veliki. The Kremlin stands on the west side of the massive, bricked Red Square. The square area has served as a marketplace, festival ground, and military parade ground.
Today, the kremlin and the Red Square, form not just the heart of Moscow, but the heart of the Russian nation as well.