In principle, we can detect the Earth's magnetic field all around the planet. In simple terms,the Earth has a north and a south pole, just like a small bar magnet. For this reason, the needle of a compass will point in a north-south direction, with the arrow pointing northwards, and this will happen anywhere on Earth, apart from areas close to the poles. However, because opposite poles attract, the geographic North Pole is actually the magnetic South pole and vice versa. On closer examination, we find that the magnetic field deviates slightly from the geographic north-south-axis-at present it tilts away from the Earth's rotational axis by about 11.5°C. To make navigation more accurate, maps usually show the small correction that needs to be made to take into account the local difference between magnetic and geographic north.
The Earth's, magnetic field is probably created by the movement of molten iron in the Earth's outer core. It protects our planet against the charged particles of the solar winds.