The Arctic consists of ocean surrounded by continental land masses and islands. The central Arctic Ocean is ice- covered year round, snow and ice are present on land for most of the year. The climate within the Circle is very cold, and much of the area is always covered with ice.
The climate of the Arctic, known as the Polar Climate, is characterized by long, cold winters and short, cool summers. Precipitation in the form of snow is low, but heavy winds whip up fallen snow to create the illusion of constant snowfall. The climate is moderated by the ocean, with regions near the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans having generally warmer temperature and heavier snowfalls than the colder and drier interior areas.
In the mind winter months, the sun never rises, and temperatures can easily reach lows of -50 degree F in the higher latitudes. In the summer months in the southern regions, 24 hours of sunlight a day melts the seas and topsoil, and is the main cause of icebergs breaking off from the frozen north and floating south, causing havoc in the shipping lanes of the North Atlantic.