All of you may be familiar with the word geology. It is the science which deals with the physical structure and substance of Earth. Antarctica has a surprising geological history. Hundreds of millions of years ago, Antarctica was part of the giant continent, Pangaea. Later on, it was part of the southern super continent of Gondwanaland. About 180 million years ago, Gondwanaland broke up to form South America, Africa, India and Australasia as well as Antarctica. Amazingly, Antarctica originally lay far from the South pole, in the equatorial latitudes.
There are no trees in Antarctica now, but once it was thickly forested. Fossils, the remains of prehistoric animals and plants, and coal deposits prove this beyond a shadow of doubt. The continent moved at a snail's pace. It drifted over millions of years to arrive at its present position. About 45 million years ago, Antarctica started cooling down. Australia and New Zealand broke off, but Antarctica continued its slow Southward march. Glaciers scraped away the soil of Antarctica. Almost the plants and animals were wiped out.